Turan lowland, author's tours in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
Excursions and tours around the Turan lowland and the countries of Central Asia.
Turan depression, Turan lowland - a vast plain in Central Asia, or rather on the territory of Kazakhstan.
Turan lowland - how to get there.
The northern and central parts of Kazakhstan are occupied by desert, semi-desert and steppe belts. They are washed by the Caspian Sea in the west, the western part is bordered by the Saryarka in the east, the Turgai plateau in the north, the Tien Shan massif in the southeast and the Kyzyl Kum desert in the south. All deserts of Kazakhstan are located in this place. Most of the depression corresponds to the Turan Plate. The maximum height does not exceed 300 m and is considered a young flat platform. The Paleozoic base (pedestal) is located at a depth of 1-6 km; separate areas of the Meso-Cenozoic layers are exposed (Mangistau, Ustyurt, Kyzylkum). The structure of the reservoir is similar to the neighboring Urals, Tien Shan and Saryarka. Here is the deepest depression Karagiya (-132 m) in the continental part of Kazakhstan. Sedimentary rocks cover the surface of the plains (Caspian basin, Aral Karakum, Moinkum, etc.).
Turan lowland - climate.
The climate of the northern part of the Turan basin in Kazakhstan is sharply continental. Winters are cold, frosty, snow cover is stable, its thickness is 15-25 cm. Strong winds are frequent. Winter is quite warm here. Dense snow cover. 10-15 cm, in the extreme south there is no permanent snow cover. January temperature is -5 - 11C, summer months are very hot and dry. The average annual temperature in July is 26-29 ° C. In summer, the surface of the sand heats up to 80 ° C. The average annual rainfall. From 70 to 180 mm. Since most of the Turan Basin is located in the belt of deserts and semi-deserts, most of the soil cover is gray, saline, pale gray, sandy gray soils. Only in the far north is the soil brown and pale brown. There are takyrs and oases in the deserts of the desert.
Turan lowland - flora.
The vegetation is predominantly wormwood-ephemeral.
Turan lowland - hydrology.
Shrubs and willows grow on the banks of large rivers and lakes. Over the past 20 years, the Aral Sea level has increased due to the aridity of the Turan basin. Large reserves of groundwater have been identified in the vast territory of the basin.
• Betpakdal artesian basin;
• Kyzylkum artesian basin;
• Turgai artesian basin;
• Ustyurt artesian basin, etc.
Turan lowland - economy.
Irrigated agriculture with grazing livestock is developed in the lowlands. It is the main region of Kazakhstan for growing rice, millet, cotton, and horticulture. In addition, the Turan Basin is an important oil and gas region of the country.
In physical and geographical zoning, the basin is conventionally divided into 11 regions. They:
1. Northern Turgai;
2. South Turgai;
5. Northern Priaralye;
6. Lower Syrdarya;
7. Middle Syrdarya;
8. Northern Kyzyl Kum;
11. Near Balkhash - Alakol.
The Turanian depression has long been home to the Turkic peoples.