Travels in Central Kazakhstan.
The Central Kazakhstan region occupies a special place in the history of the ancient Kazakhs due to its natural and geographical position and location. Archaeological excavations have shown that this area was inhabited by ancient people. According to historical chronology, at this time between 5-3 centuries. They were mainly engaged in gathering, hunting, and fishing.
Central Kazakhstan is an ancient period.
In the VI century, Central Kazakhstan became part of the Turkic Khaganate. In 603, the Turkic Khaganate was divided into two, and the Western Turkic Khaganate covered the territory of Semirechye and Central Kazakhstan. According to historical data, in the second half of the 7th century, the strongest tribal union in the Western Turkic Khaganate - the Kimaks - inhabited the territory from the Irtysh River to the Syr Darya. In the 9th century, the Kimak Khanate consisted of seven tribes: Kimaks, Lanikaz, Ajlads, Eimurs, Bayandurs, Tatars, Kypchaks. In the 10th century, the Kipchaks moved to the forefront of these tribes and formed the Polyn Khanate.
The economy of Central Kazakhstan is based on nomadic animal husbandry. In summer, cattle grazed on the vast steppes of Saryarka, and in winter they returned to mountain gorges and steppes. In the Middle Ages, a branch of the Great Silk Road passed through Saryarka, passing through Karkaraly, Ulytau, Zhezkazgan and heading west. Copper and iron ore were smelted in this region, from which tools and weapons were made. This is evidenced by the settlements of Kent, Suykbulak near Karkaralinsk, the deposits of Temirshi, Kentobe, the ancient settlement of Milikuduk in Zhezkazgan and the ancient deposits of copper and iron in the region.
Central Kazakhstan - general information.
Central Kazakhstan is one of the most shallow regions of the country, remote from the sea and without large rivers. But this is one of the regions rich in minerals. Saryarka is the land of minerals. There is coal, iron ore, copper, manganese, gold, silver, oil, etc.
Central Kazakhstan - minerals and water resources.
Central Kazakhstan can be considered a pantry of minerals. This area is home to a wide variety of minerals and large reserves. Large reserves of coal in the bowels are located in the Karaganda coal deposit. There is also 100% coking coal. Copper deposits are located near Balkhash and Zhezkazgan, 100% of manganese is concentrated in the Atasu and Zhezdy deposits. Rare metals are also found here. The main deposits of tungsten and molybdenum are located in the Upper Kayrakty, Koktenkol, Northern Katpar, Karaobe and Southern Zhaur. At the Yuzhno-Turgai oil and gas field, 3 oil and gas fields have been discovered and explored. At the same time, reserves of non-metallic minerals have been identified, especially a large amount of building materials. A feature of the region's minerals is their proximity to each other.
Lake Balkhash is located in the southeast of Central Kazakhstan, in the rest of the territory there are small lakes (Karasor, Kipchak, etc.). Lack of water hinders the development of industry and agriculture. To provide water, the Irtysh-Karaganda-Zhezkazgan reservoirs and a canal were built.
Central Kazakhstan - population.
Central Kazakhstan has long been known as a sparsely populated area. Before the Great Patriotic War and during the development of virgin lands, the Slavic peoples began to settle in the western regions of the Soviet Union. As a result, the number of Slavic peoples increased. Today, 1.3 million people of 115 nationalities live in Central Kazakhstan.
Industry of Central Kazakhstan and energy.
Central Kazakhstan is one of the largest industrial regions of the country. In general, the share of the region in the regional production is more than 9%. The explored reserves of the deposits make it possible to develop the fuel, electric power, and metallurgical industries. There is a large mining and metallurgical complex in the region. It includes mining, medium and non-ferrous metallurgy, coal industry. The fuel industry plays an important role in the region's economy. The most important coal base of our country is the Karaganda coal basin.
Thermal power plants play a key role in the electric power industry. Karaganda GRES and Temirtauskaya and Balkhashskaya CHPP provide electricity to the enterprises of the central region, as well as some enterprises of the Southern Economic Region.
Mechanical engineering plays the role of auxiliary industries. Karaganda machine-building plant of mining equipment manufactures mining equipment for metallurgical enterprises. Therefore, heavy industry occupies a leading position in Central Kazakhstan. The enterprises complementing the heavy industry complex include the light and food industries.