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Jetyasar Culture

Group of fortresses and ancient cities Jetyasar -

Traveling through the settlements of Jetyasar -

The Zhetiasar culture is the collective name of a group of ancient monuments located in the lower reaches of the Syr Darya River, along its old bed, the Kuandarya (mid-1st millennium BC - early 9th century AD). This includes a group of ancient cities and settlements, several in number, that have survived to this day. Based on the general similarity of these monuments, researchers grouped them into one culture, calling them the Zhetiasar culture in honor of the Zhetiasar gorge, where the main part of them is concentrated. The monuments were discovered in 1946 by the Khorezm archaeological and ethnographic expedition.

How to get there, visit -

The Jetiasar monument complex is located in the Kyzylorda region, the lower reaches of the Syrdarya River, the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Information -

The Jetiasar complex of cities was discovered in 1946 by an expedition led by S.P. Tolstov. Research in it was carried out in 1948 - 49, 1951 - 58, 1966. (M. A. Itika, L. M. Levika). The monuments that are part of the Zhetiasar culture are indicated by numbers: Zhetiasar-1, Zhetiasar-2, Zhetiasar-3 (Altynasar). There are large cemeteries, places of irrigation systems, about 50 cities in total and hundreds of mounds around them such as Bidayikasar, Syrlyasar, Shynlekasar, Peschliasar, Tompakasar, Karasar, Zhalpakasar, Agasar, etc.

Scientists divide the Zhetiasar culture into three stages, which, along with the main features indicating mutual continuity, have features due to various historical circumstances. During the Jetiasar-1 period, covering the middle of the 1st millennium BC. e. and 4th century. n. BC, major cities were formed and culture flourished. All cities had their own irrigation systems; the sites of the cities were preserved in the form of two-story round or oval hills with an area of 0.5 - 10 hectares and a height of 8 - 20 m. The buildings at the top served as the center of the city, around three (sometimes four) sides of which the houses of the lower floor were located . All cities had strong protective fences. In addition, some cities also have high towers, corridors that go through the wall. Raw bricks of varying sizes were used in construction. All ceramics in Zhetiasar were made by hand. In terms of manufacturing features and shape, they are similar to the ceramics of the Tasmol culture of Central Kazakhstan, as well as the Sarmatian tribes of the western regions. Bronze, iron, and bone arrows and harnesses were also discovered. Numerous finds indicate a high level of processing of metal, stone, and bone.

By the period of Zhetiasar-2 (4th-6th centuries AD), the indigenous tribes were favored by the influence of the Hunnic culture. New products, new types of ceramics appear, especially ceramics imitating the metal cauldron of the Huns. The tribes were engaged in almost all types of agriculture (farming, cattle breeding, fishing and hunting). The bones of cows, horses and camels were broken and used as building materials in the construction of houses. Remains of bones of wild animals - wolves, saigas, hares, etc., discovered during excavations, indicate that hunting was also the main occupation. The discovery of granular crushing stones, remains of wheat, rice and barley stored at the bottom of pottery, and traces of ancient water systems around the settlements indicate that agriculture was central to the life of the tribes.

Jetyasar culture in the Kyzylorda region


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