Baikonur city Kyzylorda region
Baikonur (city) Kyzylorda region
The center of the Baikonur space port (cosmodrome).
The city of Baikonur and the Baikonur Space port (Cosmodrome) together form the Baikonur complex, rented by Russia from Kazakhstan for the period until 2050.
The city of Baikonur is an administrative-territorial unit of the Republic of Kazakhstan, operating under lease conditions.
For the period of renting the Baikonur complex, the city of Baikonur in relations with the Russian Federation is given a status corresponding to the city of federal significance of the Russian Federation, with a special regime for the safe functioning of objects, enterprises and organizations, as well as citizens' residence.
The population is 77,208 people (as of October 1, 2018). As of January 1, 2011, the number of registered citizens of Kazakhstan in the city was 37.1 thousand people.
Until December 1995, it was called Leninsk. In the USSR, it had the status of a closed city. The city has access control.
Located in a bend on the right high bank of the Syr Darya River. The railway station is located 2 km north of the city on the territory of the suburban village of Turatam. Railway Arys I - Kandagach single-track, broad gauge with diesel traction. 5 km north of the city passes the Aralsk-Zhosaly-Kyzylorda automobile road, it has number M32 (Samara-Shymkent). The city and the spaceport are served by the Krainy (6 km west of the city) and Yubileiny airports (the former landing complex for Buran, 40 km north-north-west of the city, on the territory of the spaceport).
On February 12, 1955, the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR by joint decree No. 292–181ss approved the creation of the Scientific Testing Ground No. 5 of the USSR Ministry of Defense, intended for testing rocketry. For the dislocation of the landfill, a significant portion of the desert was allotted in the middle between two regional centers of the Kyzyl-Orda region of Kazakhstan - Kazalinsky and Dzhusaly, near the Turatam railway line Moscow - Tashkent. The area of formation of the landfill in the first half of 1955 had the code name "Taiga".
Construction work at the training ground was begun in the second half of the winter of 1955 by military builders under the leadership of G. M. Shubnikov. Initially, military builders lived in tents, in the spring the first dugouts appeared on the banks of the Syr Darya, and on May 5, the first capital (wooden) building of a residential town was laid.
The official date of birth of the city and the training ground is June 2, 1955, when the directive of the General Staff of the USSR Ministry of Defense approved the organizational and staffing structure of the 5th research and development testing ground and created military unit 11284 - the training ground. The landfill and the village received the unofficial name of "Dawn."
The rapid growth of the city took place in the 1980s in connection with the development of the Energy-Buran space program, which caused a large influx of specialists from all over the USSR.
Hard times for the space port and the city came in 1991-1992, after the collapse of the USSR. The number of space launches fell sharply, a number of officers and industry workers, in the prevailing atmosphere of chaos and suspense, preferred to leave with their families from the space port to their homeland (to Russia, Ukraine, etc.) in search of a better life.
In the second half of the 1990s, the number of space launches from Baikonur increased significantly, the outflow of specialists from the space port stopped. The city began to gradually recover, and then develop. Renovated (and function smoothly) city communications, roads, a number of residential buildings; a number of new squares were broken, several new monuments were erected in honor of prominent figures of the Soviet and Russian cosmonautics.
Nature of of Baikonur
The city stretches for 5 km along the Syr Darya (the water edge is about 85 m above sea level, the width of the river is 120-200 m, the depth is 1-4 m)
The water in the river and its channels is fresh, cloudy, suitable for drinking only after sedimentation and thorough cleaning.
The city is well landscaped. There are a large number of trees (elm, poplar, ash, jida, tamarisk) 3-10 m high, although there is very little grass.
Within a radius of 200 km from the city there is a significant number of reservoirs - lakes and canals.
Climate of of Baikonur
The climate is sharply continental, with a small amount of precipitation (120 mm per year), a large number of sunny days; summers are long and hot, winters are frosty and windy (snow cover is low).
• Gagarin arbor (0 quarter)
• Church of St. George the Victorious (Nitochkina street, 5a)
• Cathedral mosque "Zharimbet ata" (at the entrance to the city, near checkpoint-1)
• City House of Officers (Lenin Square)
• Administration building of the Baikonur Cosmodrome (former headquarters of the training ground, Lenin Square)
• Central Universal Market (Abay Avenue)
• City park of culture and rest (Komarova street)
Monuments of of Baikonur
In the city of Baikonur there are more than 35 monumental monuments.
Monuments are thematic
• Monument to the Baykonur residents - “Workers of space” (at the entrance to the city, near checkpoint-1)
• The stela "Science and Space" (at the beginning of Yuri Gagarin Street)
• Memorial “Glory to the conquerors of space” (at the entrance to the city on Korolev Avenue)
• The stele of the pioneers of space (at the entrance to the city on Korolev Avenue)
• Stele "Weightlessness" (at the entrance to the city from the airport "Extreme")
• Stele of fallen soldiers on the alley of the 50th anniversary of Victory
• Stela "Leninsk" (at the entrance to the city on the street of Yuri Gagarin)
Monuments to famous people of Baikonur
• Monument-bust to Academician V.P. Barmin (intersection of Abay and Korolev Avenues)
• Monument to Yuri Gagarin
• Monument-bust to academician V.P. Glushko (Glushko street)
• Monument to V. I. Lenin (Lenin Square)
• Monument-bust to Academician S.P. Korolev (intersection of Abay Avenue with Barmina Street)
• Monument-bust to Academician V.I. Kuznetsov (Korolev Avenue)
• Monument to Abay Kunanbayev (Abay Avenue)
• Monument-bust to General A. A. Maksimov (Maksimov street)
• Monument-bust to Marshal M. I. Nedelin (square on Korolev Avenue, 23)
• Monument-bust to academician N. A. Pilyugin (square on Gorky street, 26)
• Monument-bust to the designer M. S. Ryazansky (Korolev Avenue, 27a)
• Monument on the grave of the honorary builder Baikonur A. A. Tkalenko (soldier’s park named after G. M. Shubnikov, Yuri Gagarin Street)
• Monument-bust to K. Kh. Tokmukhamedov (in the courtyard of school number 14 (277), Yuri Gagarin Street)
• Monument-bust to K. E. Tsiolkovsky (in the courtyard of school number 272, Shubnikova street)
• Monument-bust to Academician V. N. Chelomey (7th microdistrict)
• Monument-bust to General G. M. Shubnikov (square at the City Palace of Culture, Pionerskaya street)
• Monument-bust to Academician M.K. Yangel (square on Yangel Street)
Monuments to fallen rocket testers of Baikonur
Monument on the mass grave of rocket men killed in the explosion of the R-16 rocket on October 24, 1960 (soldier’s park named after G.M. Shubnikov, Yuri Gagarin Street)
• Monument on the mass grave of rocket men killed in the explosion of the R-9A rocket on October 24, 1963 (soldier’s park named after G. M. Shubnikov, Yuri Gagarin Street)
Monuments of technology of Baikonur
• Monument to An-12 airplane (Aviators Square, intersection of Aviation and Barmina streets)
• Monument to the Li-2 airplane (intersection of Yangel and Seifullin streets)
• Steam engine Eu 709-81 - a monument to Baikonur railway workers (near the Gorodskaya railway station, Abay Avenue)
• Monument to the strategic missile 15A15 (square on Yangel Street)
• Launch vehicle “Soyuz” (square on Korolev Avenue, 23)
• Anti-tank gun ZIS-2 (alley of the 50th anniversary of Victory)
• Monument to the ship "Kama" (urban recreation area)