Kostanay region and province in Kazakhstan.
Travels in Kostanay region and province.
Kostanay region is an administrative-territorial division of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The region was founded on July 29, 1936 on the basis of the former Kostanai and Torgai provinces. The regional center is Kostanay (founded in 1879). The territory is 196 thousand square meters.
Geographical position Kostanay region.
The north-west and north of the Kostanay region border on the Orenburg, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan regions of Russia, North Kazakhstan, Akmola and Karaganda regions of Kazakhstan and the Aktobe region in the south-west.
Relief of the Kostanay region.
The territory of the region is mostly flat. Due to its length from north to south (740 km), it consists of various physical and geographical areas:
• on the western side of the Ural subsoil (250-400 m);
• the southern part of the West Siberian lowland (150-200 m) in the north;
• the southern part of the Turgai plateau (250-300 m);
• The western part of Saryarka (450-500 m) in the extreme southeast.
The Ural suburbs are mainly concentrated in the east, in the north near the Golden Horn, south of the Tobol River in the upper valley. In the southern part there are separate hills (Zhitikara, 414 m, etc.).
The southern slope of the West Siberian Basin is the Kostanai Plain, the Ugandan-Esil Falls and the Ishim Plain with lake basins.
The northern part of the Torgay plateau in the south of the region covers the northern part of the Torgai plateau (Lake Kushmurun, from Lake Kushmurun to the Tobol River), the middle part of the Sipmynash plateau and the middle part of the Turgai plateau, limited by the rivers Ulkeyek, Stena, Teke, Sarysu. Waterfalls here include the mountain ranges of Kargalatau (310 m), Teke (262 m), Kyzylbot (219 m) and Saryadyr (360 m), as well as the mountainous northwestern Kurgan mountains. The southern Turgai plains, which are a continuation of the Turgai plateau, cover the southern part of Lake Sarykobe. It is surrounded by the rivers of Torgai and the Great Glory.
One of the distinguishing features of the region is the Torgay Valley, 700 km from the Tobol River, encompassing the Torgay, Saryozen and Obagan valleys from the extreme northwest to the north.
The highest part of the region is Saryarka, part of the hill. There are many mountain hills Karakhs (397 m), Kokshetau (478 m, Kindshoki (569 m), etc.).
Subsoil of Kostanay region.
Kostanay region is rich in minerals. Magnetite and oolite iron ores, bauxite, gold, nickel, asbestos, brown coal, building materials (cement, flux limestone), dolomite, refractory clay, ceramic and brick mud, glass sand, granite, diorite, sandstone, etc. are represented here.
Climate of Kostanay region.
The climate of the region is sharply continental. Winters are cold and hard, the average January temperature is -18-19 ° C in the north and 16-17 ° C in the south.
Summer is quite hot, the average July temperature is 19-20 ° C. In some years, it reaches 35-40 ° C.
The average annual rainfall is from 300 mm to 170 mm from north to south, 70-75% per year.
There is a drought in the region. Over the past 50 years, drought has been repeated 3-4 times every 10 years.
Soil of the Kostanay region.
The territory of the Kostanay region is located on three large soils:
• the northern side is covered with black soils, and the southern part is gray soils;
• Black-brown-pink soils are favorable for the development of agriculture and livestock in the northern and central regions of the region.
Forest belt of Kostanay region.
The northern part of the Kostanay region is occupied by a forest belt. Forests are mainly composed of mixed birch shrubs. In some areas, they constitute a zone of birch forest, which covers a significant area. The steppe belt consists of various herbs, in the dry steppe belt - mainly oat-grass herbs mixed with various herbs. In the sandy soils of the steppe and dry steppes of the Nauryzym-Karagai forests, birch and shrubs prevail. In 1930, the State Nature Reserve (Naurzum Nature Reserve) was organized on the basis of the Nauryz-Karagai shallow water.
Animal world Kostanay region.
The fauna of the region is different. Of the predatory animals - wolves, foxes, corsac and mare, rabbits, sand mice. In the forest steppes, saigas and antelopes are common.
There are many species of birds in the region.
Kostanay region is rich in rivers and lakes. The rivers of Tobol, Bargaining and Great Glory.
The rivers belonging to the Tobol river basin (House, Toguzak, Aitet, Zhelkuvar, Shortandy) originate from the suburbs of the Urals, and the Obagan river originates from the center of the Turgay arm.
Numerous dams and irrigation systems were built on the Tobol and Torgay rivers and in their fields. Groundwater is available throughout the area. They are concentrated in sandy clay deposits.
Kostanay region is the largest grain and livestock sector in Kazakhstan. About 18% of the sown area of the country and about 13% of cattle are concentrated here.
The total area of agricultural land is 19.6 million hectares.