Akyrtas old and ancient city and palace in Djambyl region.
Akyrtas is a palace complex of the 8th — 9th centuries built in the Zhambyl region of Kazakhstan, 45 km from the city of Taraz, a monument of history and culture of republican significance.
History of Akyrtas.
Akyrtas was first mentioned in the diary of the Taoist monk Chan Chun, who traveled from China through Sairam to Samarkand in 1222 to the Genghis Khan camp. Here is what is reported in his diary: “On the road we came across a stone settlement: the stones are completely red; there are traces of an ancient military camp. In the west there are large grave mounds located like stars in Ursa Major. ”
The history of the study of Akyrtas began in 1861, but there is still no consensus on the issue of who built it. Among the various destination theories of Akyrtas are a Buddhist or Nestorian monastery, an Arab palace.
The Kazakh scientist academician Karl Baipakov believed that the dating of various parts of the complex refers to a very long period: from the V — III centuries. BC e. until the 14th century n e. The first version regarding the appointment of Akyrtas was put forward in the middle of the XIX century. According to the Russian scientist Peter Lerch, Akyrtas was a Buddhist monastery. In 1894, the complex was visited by the famous orientalist Vasily Bartold. He found an image of a fish on one of the stones and came to the conclusion that this is a monastery of Nestorian Christians who, during the time of the church schism in Russia, fled to Central Asia. The third version appeared after almost a century. German scientist Burhard Brentyes suggested that Akyrtas is the residence of the Arab governor in Central Asia, Kuteib ibn Muslim. Another version can be considered the work of the Taraz journalist Amantay Aizakhmetov, who suggested that the fortress Chigil, according to historians, founded by Alexander the Great near Taraz, is nothing more than Akyrtas.
The latest data obtained as a result of archaeological research allow us to identify Akyrtas with the medieval city of Kasribas, located on the Great Silk Road. Most scholars believe that Akyrtas was built by order of the main organizer of the Arabs' conquest campaigns in Central Asia, the Arab commander Kuteiba ibn Muslim in 714-715. He was not completed due to the fact that Kuteibu was accused of separatist sentiments and executed.
In July 2014, 8 archaeological sites of Kazakhstan, including Akyrtas, were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as part of the Great Silk Road Objects in the Chang'an-Tien-Shan Corridor.
Description of Akyrtas.
The largest objects in the walls of Akyrtas are a palace complex measuring 205 × 185 m, composed of massive processed blocks of red sandstone, and a citadel 40 × 25 m in size with walls 3–3.5 m high. To the east of the palace was a 250 × 250 garden m surrounded by a wall; to the north is a residential quarter. In the center of the settlement were located the main square and the havuz - an artificial reservoir. Other objects of Akyrtas include a caravanserai, a religious building (possibly a mosque of the early Islamic period), estates, workshops, a quarry, an observation tower, as well as a water supply system. On the territory of the settlement there are several mounds of the Saka era. There were four entrances in the city walls: one on the north side, three on the south side.
Facts of Akyrtas.
In the post-Soviet years, an assumption was made about the connection of the palace complex of Akyrtas with the Egyptian pyramids of Giza. However, it was not supported by the scientific community.
Akyrtas hillfort is popular with esoteric enthusiasts.
Akyrtas is open to visitors, but since 2016, entrance to the settlement has become paid.