Mangistau region, Mangishlak - Kazakhstan.
Travel from Almaty to Mangistau region, tours, transfers, excursions.
Mangistau region is an administrative unit located in the southwestern part of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The Mangistau region borders with the Atyrau region and the Republic of Turkmenistan, the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Caspian Sea with Azerbaijan and Iran. The region was founded on March 20, 1973. It was canceled on June 2, 1988, and on August 17, 1990, it was transformed into the historical province of Mangistau. The regional center is Aktau.
In Kazakhstan, there is only the Aktau International Sea Trade Port, which provides access to the sea. Abish Kekilbayuly, a native of the Mangystau region, compared Mangistau with Sleeping Beauty. At the same time, the contour images depict the outlines of the Mangistau Peninsula as a profile of a young woman.
Mangistau region has been engaged in cattle breeding since ancient times. The soil is salty, shrubby, with short winters but windy, with dry cold and low humidity, with long spring and hot summers.
Etymology of the Mangistau region.
There are many different opinions regarding the origin of the word Mangistau. One of them is a nomadic settlement, a thousand villages or a thousand places of wintering. In the book of E. Koishbaev "Dictionary of the names of land and water names of Kazakhstan", published in 1985, four versions of the origin of the name Mangistau are given. Firstly, the name of the region comes from the combination of a thousand and a winter. The second was named after the Nogai tribe "mek". Thirdly, according to the prediction of E. Koishybaev, "Mangyshlak" means "Mountain of monsters."
Local historian Mangistau Serikbol Kondybay believes that the assumption of "monsters" is correct. In East Turkic and Mongolian mythology, a “boomerang” (arbor, mangus) is a dragon, a beautiful monster. For the Mongols, this is described only as evil, and for the Turks, how bad. According to Kundybai, the Turkmen Oguz tribes inhabiting Mangistau had a Salir tribe, and today the Turkmen nation has a large Salar tribe. He also claims that there is a historical genetic link between the Türkic-speaking salir in Qinghai province in China and the same name. The Oguzes who arrived in Mangystau called Karatau "Mangyshlak." There are legends about Idahar among both Turkmen and Kazakhs (about Ainazar Batyr).
Oguz tribes translated the name "Mangyshlag", based on their legends, translation (tracing paper) of the toponym. Therefore, we can conclude that Mangistau means a terrible mountain, which means a mountain of a dragon or a dragon.
Geography Mangistau region.
Mangistau region is located in the southwestern part of Kazakhstan. The western and northern parts of the region border the surrounding Caspian Sea with Eastern Europe, and it borders with Turkmenistan in the south, with Karakalpakstan in the southeast and Atyrau and Aktobe regions in the north and northeast.
The highest point in the Mangistau region is Mount Beschoki on the eastern ridge of Karatau. The lowest point is the bottom of the Karakiya basin, which is the fifth largest in the world and in depth.
Vegetation cover Mangistau region.
The study of the world of the Mangistau region began a very long time ago, 150 years ago, by botanists and nature lovers: A. Shrenk, I. Borshov, P.A. Semenov-Tien-Shansky, I. Severtsov became acquainted with science thanks to the work of Eichwald. Especially important are the published works of Eichwald - the flora of the Caspian Sea from Mangistau to Shadam. Karelin 1832 In search of a suitable place to build a fortress off the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea, they described valuable views of the flora of Mangistau. I.G. Borshov 1965 In the publication "Materials on the Botanical Geography of the Aral-Caspian Region" a number of references were made to the flora of the Mangistau Peninsula.
In the Mangistau region, there are also camels, owls, chamois, vulture. In the mountains and in the foothills of the Tupkaragan region and on the plains of the southern Mangistau plain, pine grows. The main food for pastures in the Mangistau region is wormwood. Wormwood is growing throughout the region. Other plants are common in the Mangistau steppe
Medicinal plants Mangistau region.
Grasses play a special role in the diversity of flora found in the steppes of Mangistau. Mangistau has a large supply of medicinal plants, which in the future will require careful research. In addition, the meat of cattle grown in nature in the Mangistau steppe is also very tasty.
Wildlife of the Mangistau region.
The history of the Mangistau region, which is millennial, is known as the result of the existence of a variety of nature and wildlife. Currently, in any part of Mangistau you can find representatives of the fauna characteristic of deserts: zoos, reptiles, mammals, rodents, predators and birds. Among them: hedgehog, steppe turtles, lizards, different types of snakes, black grouse, goat, field mice: crow, owl, owl, corsac, fox, wolf, etc.
The climate of the Mangistau region.
The climate of the Mangistau region is formed due to the location of the region in the center of the Eurasian continent, far from the world's seas and oceans.
Region characteristic: summer is very hot, winter is cold at this latitude; sharp fluctuations in annual and daily temperatures; with little rainfall and uneven distribution throughout the year, the air is dry.
The relief of the Mangistau region.
The relief of the region is different. The northern part is occupied by Zheltau (hills) (221 m), Myn-Sualmas (148 m) and sandy areas (Karakum, etc.), Volcanic litter (Alikolkol, Kayak, Karatuley, Karakeshu, etc.) and the coast of the Caspian Sea, where it is located peninsula of bozachi. , The central part is located on the Mangystau Peninsula (Aktau, Karatau, 556 m), on the Mangystau Plateau and in the deepest basin in the CIS (-132 m) Karakiya. The Kenderli-Kaysan Highlands are located in the south-west, and the Karinzharyk depression is in the south. Ustyurt Plateau occupies the eastern part of the region
Historical period of the Mangistau region.
In past centuries, the Mangistau region was divided into various traditional nomadic administrative units. The symbolism of a clear geographical boundary dates back to the mid-nineteenth century. The region, which became part of the Russian Empire in 1848 (Mangistau, Ustyurt, Forment, Dunyztau), was divided into Upper and Lower Adai.
In 1869, according to the "New Rule", the Mangystau province was formed as part of the Ural region, which included 20,000 Kazakhs. In the same year, in connection with the popular uprising led by Isa-Dossan, he was transferred to the Caucasus Military District. In 1881, it was transformed into the Mangistau province, and in 1899 it was included in the Transcaucasian region (center - Ashgabat) of the Turkestan governor general. At that time, the area of the district was 190 thousand square kilometers.
In July 1920, after the complete restoration of Soviet power, the large Adai region was formed. Under the leadership of Tobanyaz Aliyazovich, this region was part of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and finally became part of it. In 1928, the Adai district was dissolved, and the Mangystau district was soon transformed into the Mangistau region
On March 20, 1973, the personal administration became a province and in 1990 formed its territorial structure.
History of Mangistau region.
Mangistau region is located on the Mangistau Peninsula. The name of the region is given in connection with its geographical location.
The earliest records of Mangistau’s trips from the Arab ambassador Ahmed ibn Fadlan to Khorezm, who traveled from Baghdad to the Volga Bulgaria on March 4, continuing on the Ustyurt plateau, reaching the Oguz state on March 4. Due to the short time spent on the road, the district was located between the villages of Beineu and Zhyley. Ibn Fadlan in his work “Ar Risale” provided some information about the Oguzes.
One of the branches of the Great Silk Road passed through Mangistau, and the road from Khazar to Khorezm was the main caravan route.
Demography Mangistau region.
Mangistau region is one of the most sparsely populated areas. Archaeological excavations in the region revealed the ancient population of the Neolithic and Bronze Age 180-200 thousand years ago (Paleolithic), as well as the ancient settlements in Ustyurt and Mangistau. The first information about the population of Mangistau was recorded in 1745.
Economy Mangistau region.
Mangistau region is the main donor of the region of Kazakhstan. The economic activity of the region is mainly due to the high mineral resources in the region, including the development of oil and gas fields. Over the past 20 years, many large oil and gas fields located on the Caspian Sea have been developed.
Due to the fact that the Mangistau region is located along the Caspian Sea and borders on other countries, the pace of cargo transportation is increasing every year. The land-sea-sky integration project is also developing dynamically in the region.
The bowels are rich in oil, gas, phosphorites, coal, manganese, various salts and shells. The mining industry is a determining industry for the region.