Kazalinsk city in Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan.
Excursion to Kazalinsk city - village.
Kazalinsk (or Kazaly) is a city in the Kazalinsky district of the Kyzylorda region of Kazakhstan. The administrative center and the only settlement of the Kazalinsk city administration. The KATO code is 434423100.
The city is located on the right bank of the Syr Darya River. The Kazalinsk railway station (code 670507) on the Orenburg-Tashkent railway (Kandyagash-Arys section), founded in 1903, is located 12 km north of the city, and the Aiteke-Bi urban settlement (former Novokazalinsk) is located in the district center. The adjective Kazalinskiy applies to this locality.
Aral Sea and Kazalinsk (or Kazaly) city.
Before the degradation of the Aral Sea and the Syrdarya delta in the second half of the 20th century, the main occupation of the inhabitants was fishing and fish processing. There were fish and brick factories, currently closed.
The city is officially included in the Aral Sea zone of ecological disaster.
The Russian military fortification in the Kazaly tract was founded in 1853 at the direction of V. A. Perovsky and was officially called Syr-Darya Fort No. 1. The fort was built to replace the abolished Aral fortification.
In 1867, the settlement was granted city status and the name Kazalinsk. In the same year, the Syr Darya region of the Russian Empire was created, the city became the administrative center of the Kazaly district of this region.
By the end of the XIX century, the population of the city was about 6 thousand inhabitants. The composition of the population was heterogeneous: Russians, including Cossacks and exiled Urals, Tatars, Kazakhs, Khiva, Central Asian Jews.
History about Kazalinsk (or Kazaly) city.
During World War II, German troops (sabotage and reconnaissance group) were thrown out on the territory of the Kazalinsky district. This fact was used in the plot of the feature film “Triple Jump of Panther”, shot by the Kazakhfilm film studio in 1984-1985.
The maximum level of economic and social development of Kazalinsk and the region was achieved in the 1970s, before the sharp decline in the level of the Aral Sea.
The city has one of the oldest weather stations in Central Asia - it has been operating since 1848.
Sights in Kazalinsk city.
The historical part of Kazalinsk is an urban complex of the late XIX - early XX centuries, which is an architectural monument of national importance. The Ganibay house (XIX century), the building of the memorial museum of G. Muratbaev (late XIX - early XX centuries), the building of the city library (former Ganibay mosque, XIX century), the Nogai mosque (Nurala mosque, XIX century), the building of the district house of culture named after . R. Baglanova (former church, 1904).
17 km south-west of Kazalinsk, near the village of Urkendeu, the ancient settlement Zhankent (Yangikent) (V — XV centuries) is located.
Population Kazalinsk city.
Most residents of the city are Kazakhs. Several dozens of families of Russian Old Believers from the Urals also live. Residents leave the city in search of work, leaving for Baikonur, Kyzylorda, and other cities in Kazakhstan and Russia.
At the beginning of 2019, the city's population was 5777 people (3053 men and 2724 women).
Geography Kazalinsk city.
The Aiteke Bi — Birlik highway passes through the city. 15 km north of the city passes the Aralsk-Zhosaly-Kyzylorda automobile road, it has number M-32 (Samara-Shymkent).
The city of Kazalinsk has quarterly development. The houses are mostly single-storey of adobe bricks or adobe. In the city center, two-story administrative buildings of burnt bricks. The main streets with a width of 20–30 m are covered with asphalt or gravel, others 10–20 m wide without pavement. Kazalinsk is fenced from the south by an earthen dam in order to protect against flooding during the spill of the Syr Darya.
Nature Kazalinsk city.
The territory is a flat plain, crossed from east to west by the river Syr Darya, flowing 1 km south of the city. The absolute elevation marks are 55–65 m. The Syr Darya floodplain is wide (up to 30–50 m), boggy in places, there are a large number of channels, lakes and a dense irrigation network.
The Syr Darya has a width of 50–150 m, a depth of 0.7–3 m, a flow velocity of 0.8 m / s, and the bottom soil is sandy and viscous. The riverbed is winding, with a large number of islands and a channel. The banks are steep and steep, the height of the cliffs is 2–6 m. The water in the river and its channels is fresh, muddy, suitable for drinking after thorough cleaning. The highest water level in the river is from April to August. In late June and early July, water rises above the average level to 3 m. In early December, the Syr Darya and all available reservoirs freeze, open at the end of March; the thickness of ice in severe winters reaches 1.1 m. In some places, small vessels sailing in the Syr Darya with a draft of up to 1.2 m.
How to visit Kazalinsk city.
In the floodplain of the Syr Darya and on the islands, thickets of thorny shrubs - tugai are widespread. Among the tugai, individual trees of willow, jida (sucker), and poplar rise. On lakes and in places along the river banks a reed grows 3-4 m high, often forming impenetrable thickets. Vegetables and rice are grown on irrigated lands.
In the rest of the territory, desert and semi-desert vegetation is represented by rare shrubs (tamarisk, juzgun) up to 2 m high, semi-shrubs (boyalych, biiyurgun, kokpek, wormwood) 0.5 m high and grasses (fescue, feather grass, camel thorn). Grass cover burns out by early June.
The city is landscaped with willows, elms and poplars, in the private sector there are orchards.
Climate Kazalinsk city.
The climate is sharply continental, arid, with large fluctuations in seasonal and daily air temperatures, low rainfall (about 130 mm per year).
Winter (mid-November to mid-March) with variable cloud cover and frequent fogs. The average air temperature during the day is -5 ... -10 ° C, at night up to -20 ... -25 ° C (minimum -38 ° C). Persistent frosts begin in December. Thaws are possible in any month of winter. Precipitation falls mainly in the form of snow. Snow cover forms in the second half of December and lasts until the end of March; its thickness usually does not exceed 10 cm (in snowy winters it reaches 40 cm). The average depth of soil freezing is 1.3 m.
Spring (mid-March - April) is warm with unstable weather in the first half. The air temperature at the beginning of the season during the day is -1 ... -10 ° C, at night up to -10 ° C; at the end of the season, daytime up to 25 ° C, at night from -1 ° C to 8 ° C. Precipitation falls in the form of short-term rains, sometimes with snow.
Summer (May - mid-September) is characterized by steady, hot, dry and slightly cloudy weather. The air temperature during the day is 30 ... 35 ° C (maximum 45 ° C), at night the temperature drops to 15 ... 18 ° C.
Autumn (mid-September to mid-November) is dry and warm in the first half, cloudy and cool in the second half. Air temperature during the day 5 ... 25 ° C, at night -5 ... 5 ° C. Precipitation falls in the form of drizzling rains; wet snow falls in the second half of November.
Winds in the spring and summer are western and north-western, in the fall and winter eastern and north-eastern. The prevailing wind speed is 3–7 m / s. Throughout the year (especially in winter and spring), sometimes strong storm winds are observed at a speed of 15 m / s or more (25 days per year).
The average number of days with weather phenomena for a year: precipitation - 58 (January - 9, June - 2), fog - 25, blizzard - 12, thunderstorm - 8. The number of clear days in general cloud cover is 119, and cloudy in lower cloud cover is 17.