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Kazakh musical instruments.


Information about Kazakh musical instruments.

Travelers and cultural researchers have repeatedly noted the melodiousness and musicality of the Kazakhs. Humorous motifs in which one can hear the noise of the steppe, mountain waterfalls, snowstorm and spring bird twitter - all this is reproduced by Kazakh folk instruments. We will tell you more about them.

Kazakh folk wind instruments.

Musical instruments - the most important component of the culture of the people. This is an indicator of spiritual development, the originality of the perception of the world, religious beliefs.
Kazakh national instruments are not only a historical heritage, but also an indicator of the level of spiritual development of a people, their spiritual wealth, aesthetic taste, ability and talent to recreate the music of the universe.

They were made not only for entertainment or hearing delight. They were involved in cults, magic rituals, shamanistic rituals, etc. Music accompanied the Kazakh throughout life. With the help of music, knowledge about the world, the history of the people was transmitted, ethical standards were instilled.
The Kazakhs have a legend according to which, a divine song that poured from heaven descended so low that it was heard by the nomad Kazakhs. She penetrated their hearts and appeared in the song.

Indeed, the Kazakhs are endowed with a special musical perception. Sometimes it seems that the talent for music was granted to our people by God. Kazakh musical instruments are a frozen song that comes to life thanks to the skillful fingers of musicians.
Kazakh instruments are represented by more than twenty types.
Wind instruments in this category occupy a special place. Here are the most popular and revered among them:
Sazsyrnai is a wind instrument made of clay mixed with wool.

Outwardly, it resembles a fist or a chicken egg, and there are ones that resemble a flying bird.
The voice of this wind instrument recreates the howl of the wind. At the base, no more than six holes were made for sound extraction. Decorated with floral ornaments. Shepherds used it.

Sybyzgy is another wind instrument of the shepherds.

Outwardly resembles a pipe. They made it from two hollow tubes made of reed or cast from silver. These parts were tied with thread.
Sybyzgy is a fairly long instrument - up to 65 cm. In Kazakhstan, there are two types of such a pipe - western (long and thin) and eastern (cone-shaped, smaller both in diameter and length).

Kerney is a wind instrument used in military campaigns.

They made it out of metal. Its main function is alarm. Used core to maintain the spirit of the nomads.
Bugyshak is not only entertaining, but also a practical musical instrument.
The hunters used it as a signaling device. They made it from the horns and bones of large animals.
Kazakh wind instruments actively use folklore-ethnographic ensembles. Folk and professional composers create melodies for these instruments.

Kazakh national string instruments.

This category of musical devices in Kazakh culture is widely represented. Among these tools, the following are especially revered:

Dombra.

This plucked instrument is a visiting card of Kazakh musical culture. For its manufacture use wood.
There are two ways of playing dombra: some performers hit the strings, while others pinch them.
Such music conveys the feelings and experiences of a different register: joy and love, sadness and tenderness.
Adyrna is one of the oldest tools.
In his form, the militancy of Kazakh nomads was displayed: it resembles a warrior's bent bow. The principles of playing the Adyr are the same as the harp.
The wooden tool body is lightweight because it is hollow. The role of strings is performed by pieces of specially made leather, tendons, threads woven from camel hair. Going through the strings, the musician creates a melody.

Kobyz.

This stringed stringed musical instrument was made from a piece of wood, bending in such a way that it resembled a bucket.
Kobyz is an instrument endowed with magical and even mystical properties. Its sounds resemble the voices of the animal world. The Kazakhs believed in totems, so they believed that the voices of the spirits of their ancestors were heard in this music.
The Kazakh legend tells that the creator of the kobyz was Korkyt-ata, a famous storyteller.

Sherter is a Turkic and Kazakh musical string instrument.

Outwardly, it resembles a reduced dombra. He has a neck, but lacks frets.
For its manufacture, a raw tree was used, which was bent to the desired shape and dried. Treated skin was pulled onto it. Horse hair served as strings. There are only two in the sherter. This instrument makes a strong sound.

Zhetygen is a popular tool today.

It is often used in modern folk orchestras. It has a rectangular shape made of wood.
Outwardly, the zhetygen somewhat resembles a seven-stringed harp. Strings, by the way, were made of horsehair.
The legend of Zhetygen reveals the pattern of using exactly seven strings. The old man, having lost his seven sons, poured his grief in the memorial songs. Performing cui for each of his sons, he pulled a new string on a musical instrument.

Kazakh plucked string instruments are a reflection of the lyrical soul of the people. They have an original structure and make a variety of sounds.
Kazakh percussion folk instruments
Percussion in the musical culture of the people from ancient times carried out a special mission - drove away evil spirits, attracted luck and accompanied soldiers in campaigns and battles.
This mission was entrusted to such folk instruments of the Kazakhs:

Dangyra.

Genetically, this device is associated with a tambourine.
Its construction is simple: a metal or wooden rim was covered with leather specially made for this purpose.
The dull sound of the blows was supplemented by chains that hung on the rim from the inside.
They used it mainly in ceremonies.

Daulpaz - Kazakh Timpani.

A small 30 cm diameter ring with a handle. He was covered with leather on both sides.
The instrument was sonorous, therefore it was used during military campaigns at the beginning of the attack, on the hunt, to notify of the move.
He had ritual significance - accompanied the worship of religious rites. Hit him with a hand or a whip.

Shindauyl - Kazakh drum.

They used it as a warning device - they called for a hunt, gave a signal about moving to another place.
Percussion instruments among the Kazakhs were of particular importance. Their loud sounds organized and informed about important events in the lives of warriors and ordinary nomads.
Reed and noise musical instruments of Kazakhs
This type of musical instrument has exceptional national features and properties.
The music of such instruments resembles the diverse sounds of the steppe. They produce melodic sounds that easily add up to the finished composition.
Many of them were endowed with magical properties.
From ancient times, we heard such Kazakh reed and noise instruments:
Asatayak is a ritual instrument of shamans.
This is a staff made of strong wood. The top of the staff was decorated with plates, carvings. When shaking, these details rattled, making mysterious sounds.

Konyrau, or bells.

To enhance the sound, bells were hung on the asatayak.
Since the 19th century, the shamanic staff has lost its ritual significance; women began to use rings from konyarau for lulling and entertaining babies.
Shankobyz is a reed instrument resembling in appearance a miniature lyre.
It was applied to the mouth and, exhaling air and changing the position of the tongue, caused the resonance of metal plates. So sounds of different heights were born.

This instrument produces a wide variety of overtones, resembling the sound of a person’s voice, allows you to produce sounds of different planes - the sound of rain, wind, the murmur of a waterfall, the sounds of the animal world (running a horse, birds singing).
They made it from wood or animal bones.

A variety of musical instruments of the Kazakhs testifies to the uniqueness of the culture of this people, their spiritual wealth. They reflect the religious views of the people, the relationship of the nomads with the outside world.
Musical instruments demonstrate the integration of Kazakhs in nature, as well as the lyricism of the national soul.
Today folk instruments take pride of place in folklore ensembles. Original compositions are created for them.