Geography of Kazakhstan information.
Travel to Kazakhstan and Geography of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan is located in the center of the continent of Eurasia and occupies the ninth place in the world in area - 2724.9 thousand km².
In the east, north and north-west, Kazakhstan borders with Russia, in the south with Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, and in the southeast with China.
The border of Kazakhstan passes through the Caspian Sea, then along the Volga steppes, rises north to the southern spurs of the Ural Mountains, then east along the West Siberian Plain to Altai. In the east, the border runs along the ridges of Tarbagatai and Dzungaria, in the south - along the mountains of the Tien Shan and Turan lowlands to the Caspian Sea.
Kazakhstan is the 9th country in the world by area, whose borders are legally formed. The exception is the border from the Caspian. The total length of the borders of Kazakhstan is 13,394.6 km
European part Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan is a state located in two parts of the world, on the border of Europe and Asia; most of the country is in Asia, the smaller - in Eastern Europe. In Soviet, Russian and Kazakh authoritative sources, the European border on its stretch passing through Kazakhstan is given along the Mugodzhary mountains and the Emba River. Earlier, the border of the parts of the world was drawn along the Ural River, so in some sources one may find divergences: the Encyclopedia Britannica in the article “Europe” describes the border of Europe and Asia, which coincides with that in the TSB (according to Mugodzhary and Emba), but on the maps that are in Britannica, the border is shown along the Ural River (see map of Europe, map of Asia in the Encyclopedia Britannica). And the CIA World Fact Book continues to draw the border of the European part of Kazakhstan along the Ural River.
According to the most common interpretation of the border between Europe and Asia along the Mugodzhary and Embe, the European part of Kazakhstan includes:
• West Kazakhstan region - in its entirety.
• Atyrau region - most, without the southern part of the Zhylyoi region, together with the city of Kulsary.
• Aktobe oblast - the northwestern and central parts: Martuksky, Kargalynsky, Kobdinsky, Alginsky, Uilsky and Temirsky districts as a whole, as well as the northwestern part of the Baiganinsky district, the northwestern and central parts of the Mugalzharsky district, the western part of the Khromtau region and the administrative center area city of Aktobe.
According to the previous interpretation of the border between Europe and Asia along the Ural Mountains and the Ural River (Zhaiyk), which some western sources continue to adhere to (including Britannic's encyclopedia), the European part of Kazakhstan includes:
• The western (right-bank) part of the West Kazakhstan region without Burlinsky, Terektinsky district, Shyngyrlausky, Syrymsky and Karatobinsky districts as a whole, as well as the eastern part of Akzhayiksky district.
• The western (right-bank) part of the Atyrau region, including the entire Kurmangazy and Isatai regions, as well as the western (right-bank) parts of the Inder and Makhambet region, as well as a smaller part of the administrative center of the region of the city of Atyrau.
Relief of Kazakhstan.
The terrain of Kazakhstan is diverse. 58% of the territory is occupied by deserts and semi-deserts, 10% - mountains. In the north of the republic steppes and forest-steppes prevail. 23% of the country's territory is suitable for agriculture, 70% - for livestock breeding.
In the northwest is the Ural plateau. In the west of the country lies the Caspian lowland. In the south-west is the Mangyshlak Peninsula (Mangystau). To the east is the Ustyurt plateau. In the north-east of the Caspian lowland are Mugodzhary, then the Turgai plateau. Near the Aral Sea are the Kyzylkum desert and sand massifs - Big Badgers, Small Badgers and Aral Karakum.
The central part of Kazakhstan is occupied by the Central Kazakhstan small hills (Sary Arka). To the south is the Betpak-Dala Desert (Hungry Steppe), to the south of it is the Moinkum Desert, to the east is the Balkhash Depression. In the south is the Ili depression.
The lowest point in Kazakhstan is the Karakiya Depression on the Mangystau Peninsula - 132 meters below sea level. The highest is Khan Tengri peak - 6,995 m.
Plains of Kazakhstan.
The East European Plain
• European plain
• West Siberian Plain
• Ishim Steppe
• Kulundinskaya plain
• Balkhash elevated plain
• Turgai plateau
The highest density of the river network (0.4-1.8 km / km²) is distinguished by the highlands of Altai, ridge. Zhetysu and Ile Alatau. The smallest river network density is observed in the sandy deserts of the Aral Sea and the Caspian region (less than 0.03 km / km²). Most of the rivers in Kazakhstan belong to the internal closed basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, lakes Balkhash and Tengiz, and only the Irtysh, Ishim, Tobol bring their waters to the Kara Sea. The territory of Kazakhstan is usually divided into eight water basins: Aral-Syrdarya water basin, Balkhash-Alakol water basin, Irtysh water basin, Ural-Caspian water basin, Ishim water basin, Nura-Sarysu water basin, Shu-Talas water basin and Tobol water management pool.
There are 48,262 lakes in the Republic of Kazakhstan, of which 45,248 have an area of less than 1 km². There are large lakes with an area of more than 100 km² - 21. Kazakhstan is washed by such large lakes as the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea. In addition, the republic has one of the largest lakes in the world - Balkhash. Lakes are unevenly distributed across Kazakhstan. Northern Kazakhstan accounts for 45% of all lakes, central together with southern - 36%, in the remaining regions there are only 19%. Map of the largest lakes in Kazakhstan The total surface of lakes in Kazakhstan reaches - 45 002 km². The total volume of water is 190 km³.
Inland waters Kazakhstan.
In Kazakhstan, there are 7 large rivers, the length of each of which exceeds 1000 km. Among them: the Ural River (its upper reaches are located on the territory of Russia), which flows into the Caspian Sea; Syr Darya (its upper reaches are located on the territory of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) - to the Aral Sea; The Irtysh (its upper reaches in China; on the territory of Kazakhstan has large tributaries Tobol and Ishim) crosses the republic, and already on the territory of Russia it flows into the Ob, flowing into the Arctic Ocean; Ili River (its upper reaches are located in China) flows into Lake Balkhash.
There are many large and small lakes in Kazakhstan. The largest among them are the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, Balkhash, Alakol, Zaysan, Tengiz. Kazakhstan includes most of the northern and half of the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea. The length of the Caspian Sea coast in Kazakhstan is 2340 km.
Kazakhstan has 13 large reservoirs with a total area of 8,816 km² and a total water volume of 87.326 km³.
Oil of Kazakhstan.
At the beginning of 2009, the volume of proven oil reserves, according to BP, was 39.6 billion barrels, or 6.5 billion tons, which is 3.2% of the global oil supply. Forecasted oil reserves in fields located in the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea alone amount to more than 17 billion tons. The main oil producing companies of Kazakhstan are NK Kazmunaigas, Tengizchevroil, CNPC-Aktobemunaigas, Karachaganak Petroleum Operating, and others.
Natural gas of Kazakhstan.
Gas reserves of Kazakhstan at the beginning of 2009 amounted to 1.82 trillion m³ (according to BP), which is 1.7% of world reserves. The main gas producing companies of Kazakhstan are Karashyganak Petroleum Operating, NK Kazmunaigas, CNPC-Aktobemunaigas and others. The main deposits of Kazakhstan are Karashyganak, Zhanazhol, Kyzyloy and others.
Uranus of Kazakhstan.
The explored reserves of Kazakhstan's uranium deposits are 1.69 million tons, which is 21% of the world's reserves (2nd place in the world as of 2005). Commercial sale of uranium in the country is carried out by the state-owned company Kazatomprom, which was established in 1997. In 2005, the company took 3rd place in the world in terms of uranium production (after the Canadian Cameco and the French Cogema). In 2009, Kazakhstan took the first place in the world in the supply of uranium concentrate to the world market, extracting 13.5 thousand tons and ahead of Canada, which was in second place and was formerly the world leader in uranium mining for 17 years (see article Uranium by country). In 2010, the uranium production by the state-owned NAC Kazatomprom amounted to 17,803 tons.
Ore minerals of Kazakhstan.
In Kazakhstan, there are rich deposits of ores of various metals - lead, zinc, chromium, gold, bismuth, copper, molybdenum, aluminum, iron, manganese, rare earth elements and combustible and non-metallic minerals - coal, phosphorites, etc.
Climate of Kazakhstan.
The territory of Kazakhstan is very far from the ocean and is open to winds from the west and north. Because of this, the main climate properties of Kazakhstan are its sharp continentality and uneven distribution of natural precipitation.
Winter in Kazakhstan is cold and long in the north and moderately mild in the south. The average January temperature ranges from −18 ° C in the north to −3 ° C in the south. Summer is dry. It is warm in the north, very warm in the center, and hot in the south.
Precipitation is negligible, with the exception of mountainous regions.
Almost the entire territory of Kazakhstan is characterized by strong winds, in some regions over 40 m / s. Also in Kazakhstan, there are traditions and legends associated with climate events. In particular, the period in April, called "Bes Konak."
Flora of Kazakhstan.
Over six thousand plant species grow in Kazakhstan, of which 515 are endemic.
Flora has 68 species of tree species, 266 species of shrubs, 433 species of shrubs and half grasses, 2598 species of perennial grasses, 849 species of annual grasses.
Forests in Kazakhstan occupy 1.2% of the territory, taking into account saxaul forests and shrubs - 4.2%
Fauna of Kazakhstan.
• Birds - about 590 species (see Kazakhstan Bird List)
• Beasts - 178 species
• Reptiles - 49 species (see List of reptiles of Kazakhstan)
• Amphibians - 12 species (see the List of Amphibians of Kazakhstan)
• Fish - 107 species
• Insects - not less than 30 thousand
The soil of Kazakhstan.
The soil cover has a pronounced zonal and altitudinal zonation. Most of the forest-steppe zone is occupied by chernozems, to the south of them are dark chestnut, light chestnut and brown soils. Desert and semi-desert soils are represented as gray soils.
With the exception of the northern regions, the soils in Kazakhstan are poor and saline. In general, the country is characterized by latitudinal zonation of soils: in the north - chernozems, then in the south - chestnut, brown semi-desert soils, takyrs and desert sands. In the mountains, chestnut, gray forest and mountain meadow chernozem soils are developed.
The border between Europe and Asia in Kazakhstan.
In Soviet science, according to the decision of the International Geographic Union, it was decided to draw the border between Europe and Asia along the Mugalzhary River to the source of the river. Emba, further along Emba to the Caspian Sea. Earlier (until the end of the 1950s), the border of Europe within Kazakhstan was drawn along the riverbed. Ural.
In April-May 2010, the expedition of the Russian Geographical Society came to the conclusion that the border of Europe should be drawn along Mugalzhar, along the edge of the Caspian lowland, where the East European Plain ends and the western ledges of the Ustyurt plateau pass, that is, even further south, than is now commonly believed. To date, the opinion of a group of scientists from the Russian Geographical Society has not been evaluated by such an international organization as the International Geographical Union.