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Big Uzen river in West Kazakhstan region.


Information bout Big Uzen river in Kazakhstan.

Big Uzen river (Bolshoi Uzen) is a steppe river of internal flow, flowing through the Saratov region of Russia and the West Kazakhstan region of Kazakhstan.

Description Big Uzen river.

The length of the river is about 400 kilometers (up to 650 km in flood). The catchment area is 14,300 km².
It originates on the southwestern slopes of General Syrt. In the upper part flows to the southwest, after the confluence of the tributary, Solyanka turns to the southeast. In Kazakhstan, the river passes into an extensive system of small lakes and marshes, known as Kamysh-Samara.
Altata flows into the Big Uzen on the left side, and a small duct connects to the Sakryl Lake on the right.
The river bed is quite deep, the banks are steep, there are rapids under Zhalpaktal. In the upper reaches, the water is fresh all year round, and in the middle and lower reaches, by the end of summer, in autumn and winter, the water becomes bitter-salty and unfit for consumption.
Since 1973, the Saratov irrigation and watering canal, every year from April 15 to November 15, supplies the Volga water to the source of Bolshoi Uzen, with an average flow rate of 13.2 m³ / s. As a result of this, the hydrological regime has changed dramatically: runoff during the summer period began to be observed almost along the entire river.
According to one version, Big Uzen in ancient times flowed into the bay of the Caspian Sea, which retreated to the south and left behind a whole system of lakes - Kamysh-Samara, whose level is lower than the level of the Caspian Sea. Among these lakes there are lakes with self-settling salt, which has a rather distinct bitter aftertaste and is known by the name "Uzen" salt.
Big Uzen abounds with fish. Spring spills form vast waterlogged meadows at the bottom, providing hay for winter time with hundreds of thousands of rams wintering here and tens of thousands of horses.


Etymology Big Uzen river.

The Kazakh name is Kara-Ozen, that is, the Black (not drying up in a drought) river.
By the name of the Big and parallel to the current Small Uzeni, the surrounding area is popularly known under the name Uzeni. The generic name of the river geographic region of Uzen was introduced into the circulation by the Yaitsky Cossacks. This name is found both in legal (decrees of Catherine II and Paul I) and geographical (ESBE; VI volume of "Russia" Semenov-Tyan-Shansky) Russian literature. This name is also found in geographical literature, for example, in the V volume of "Russia" by Semenov-Tian-Shansky.

History Big Uzen river.

Here, at Uzen, Old Believers' temples and hermitages were located; it was here, “having secretly left for Uzen,” that in 1772 brought the brave Chika-Zarubin, a military flag rescued after the Embulatov disaster. Soon Chika became a companion of the impostor Emelyan Pugachev - and fully shared the triumph and tragedy of False Peter III.
During the Civil War, fierce battles took place here between the red units (led by Chapaev and Furmanov) and the white Yaitsky (Ural) Cossacks. The Reds captured the village of Slamikhinskaya (now the village of Zhalpaktal).

Archeology Big Uzen river.

Bolsheuzensky archeological monuments are known, including burial mounds with medieval burials. During archaeological research of the Mokrinsky burial ground, silver coins of the Golden Horde were found [6].
On the right bank of the river, 150 m south of the settlement of Oroshoye and 1.5 km north of Alexandrov Gaya, there is a neolithic site Algay.
In the cliffs of the river and at the bottom often found the remains of a mammoth (teeth, tusks - well preserved, bones) and antediluvian bull.

Water registry data Big Uzen river.

According to the state water register of Russia, it belongs to the Ural Basin District, the water sector of the river is Bolshoi Uzen. River basin - Basins of the Small and Big Uzen rivers (the Russian part of the basins).