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Syr darya river in Kazakhstan.


Travel to rivers of Kazakhstan.

The Syr Darya is the longest and second most watery river after the Amu Darya in Central Asia. The long-term average water discharge is 724 m³ / s (27 km below the Chirchik confluence).

Description Syr Darya river.

Formed at the confluence of Naryn and Karadarya in the eastern part of the Ferghana Valley. Practically all the water flow of the Syr Darya is formed in the mountainous part of the basin. The food is mainly snow, to a lesser extent glacial and rain. The main contribution to the water flow of the Syr Darya is given by Naryn (36%), Kara-Darya (11%), the rivers of the Fergana Valley (25%) and Chirchik (twenty %). The floor is full of summers. Beyond the city of Char ¬ dar, the river flow is consumed for irrigation and now it is consumed in the flood different times.
Upon exiting the Ferghana Valley, the river crosses the Farhad Mountains and then flows along an extensive, sometimes swampy floodplain 14.7 km wide across the Hungry Steppe.

In the middle course (from the Farhad mountains to the Chardara reservoir), the Angren (Akhangaran), Chirchik and Keles rivers flow into the Syr Darya. From the Farhad hydroelectric complex begins the South-Holodnostepsky Canal. In 1958, the Zhanadari Canal was commissioned. The flow of water from many small tributaries of the Syr Darya is broken up and does not reach it.
In the lower reaches, the Syr Darya flows along the eastern and northern outskirts of Kyzylkum sands; the river bed here is winding and unstable; floods are frequent during the winter-spring period. The last tributary is Arys. In the lower reaches of the river, from the city of Turkestan to the district center of Zhosaly, there is an extensive floodplain (10-50 km wide, about 400 km long), penetrated by many channels, sometimes reed and tugai, widely used for agriculture (rice, melon, vegetable, and in some places gardening). At the mouth of the Syr Darya forms a delta (near the city of Kazalinsk) with numerous channels, lakes and swamps, used for melon farming.
The Syr Darya previously flowed into the Aral Sea, now, due to a catastrophic decline in its level and the decay of the sea into two parts (in 1989), the river flows into the northern part of the sea (the so-called “Small Sea”). The waters of the Syr Darya are largely disassembled for irrigation, in connection with this, the current volume of runoff at the mouth has decreased by more than 10 times (from 400 m³ / s to 30 m³ / s) compared to the conditionally natural period (until 1960 of the year).

River basin Syr Darya river.

The length is 2212 km (according to other sources, 2137), from the sources of Naryn - 3019 km. [6] On the territory of the Syr Darya river basin there are 3 regions of Kyrgyzstan: Naryn, Jalalabad and Osh, Sogd region of Tajikistan, 6 regions of Uzbekistan: Andijan, Namangan, Fergana, Tashkent, Jizzakh and Syrdarya and two regions of Kazakhstan: Turkestan and Kyzylorda. The Syr Darya basin area is 219,000 km². The total value of natural water resources is 36.6 km ³. The volume of the annual river flow, reaching the Syrdarya River is 30.8 km³.
At the 11th kilometer of the derivation channel, departing from the reservoir on the Syr Darya, the Farhad hydroelectric station (architect Joseph Karakis) is located [7]. The Kairakkum reservoirs (4.2 km³, Tajikistan) and Chardara (5.7 km³, Kazakhstan) were created on the river. In order to regulate spring floods and water discharges from the Toktogul hydroelectric station, Kazakhstan built the Koksarai reservoir in the Turkestan region, otherwise - the Koksarai counter-regulator (dam length 45 km) with a volume of 3 billion cubic meters, which was first filled in the spring of 2010. Completely construction was completed in December 2011. But already in the spring of 2011, 2 billion m³ was accumulated in the Koksaray reservoir. In 2012, it was planned to gain full volume.
On the shore of the Syr Darya there are the cities of Kai ¬ k¬kum, Khujand (Tadzhi-ki-Stan), Syr Darya, Bekabad, Shardara, Kyzylorda, Dzhal-ogash, Dzhu-saly , Baikonur, Kazalinsk (Kazakhstan).

History Syr Darya river.

In the writings of Greek historians, the middle course of the river was called “Tanais,” which they carried from the famous river Don-Tanais, which flowed through the territory of the Scythians. The presence of two Tanais, Central Asian and European, was noted in the II century BC. e. Greek writer Arrian. According to Arrian, the Syr Darya also bore the name "Yaksart" - an ancient local name, which was probably distributed among the local Saka tribes.
Strabo wrote that "the Iaxartes River separates the Saks from the Sogdians." Sharafaddin Yazdi called the Syr Darya the river Seykhun and claimed that it delimits Mogulistan and Maverannahr.
On the left bank of the river, in the Kyzylorda region, there is a medieval settlement Artyk-Ata.