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Ural river in Atyrau region, Kazakhstan.


Rafting by the Ural river in Kazakhstan and Russia.

Ural - a river in Eastern Europe, flows through the territory of Russia and Kazakhstan, flows into the Caspian Sea. It is the third longest river in Europe, second only to the Volga and Danube in this indicator. Length - 2428 km. The catchment area is 231,000 km².

Ural river title.

The old name (until 1775) is Egg. The ancient name is mentioned by Ptolemy as Daix. Hydronym of Turkic origin (jajyk - “spread out, wide”). The old name of the river has been preserved in Kazakh, Nogai and Bashkir languages. In some texts, the river is mentioned under the name Rimn, Rymn (lat. Rhymnus fluvius), which is also attributed to the Volga, Emba, Big and Small Uzen; on the maps of medieval European cartographers, the modern Ural river was often indicated as Rhymnus or Rhymnicus. The first mention in surviving Russian chronicles dates back to 1140: "Mstislav was driven by Polovits for the Don beyond the Volga for the Yaik."
In Russia, the name Yaik was changed to the Urals in 1775 by decree of Catherine the Second, after the suppression of the Peasant War led by Pugachev, in which the Bashkirs and Yaits Cossacks actively participated.

Ural river geography.

It originates on the slopes of the peak Kruglyaya Sopka Uraltau ridge in the Uchalinsky district of Bashkortostan. It flows into the Caspian Sea.
In the beginning, the Urals flows south, having met the elevated plateau of the Kazakh steppe, turns sharply to the north-west, changes direction to the south-west beyond Orenburg, near the city of Uralsk the river makes a new sharp bend to the south and in this main direction, meandering to west, then east, flows into the Caspian Sea. The mouth of the Urals is divided into several sleeves and gradually becomes shallow. In 1769, Pallas counted nineteen branches, some of which were allocated by the Urals 660 meters above its discharge into the sea; in 1821 there were only nine, in 1846 - only three: Yaitskoye, Zolotinsky and Peretasknoye. By the end of the 1850s and the beginning of the 1860s, almost no branches with a constant flow from the Urals were almost separated to the city of Guryev. The first sleeve, which was separated from the main channel on the left, was Peretask, which was divided into the channels Peretasknoy and Aleksashkin. Even lower, the Ural bed was divided into 2 branches - Zolotinsky and Yaitsky, and both the first and second were divided into two estuaries: Big and Small Yaitsky, Big and Old Zolotinsky. Another sleeve departed from the Zolotinsky arm to the east, Bukhark, which flows into the sea between Peretask and Zolotoy.

Ural river history.

The fall of the Urals is not particularly great; from the headwaters to Orsk it has about 0.9 meters per 1 kilometer, from Orsk to Uralsk no more than 30 centimeters per 1 kilometer, lower - even less. The width of the channel is generally insignificant, but diverse. The bottom of the Urals, in the upper reaches is rocky, in the greater part of the course it is clay and sand, and within the Urals there are stone ridges. Under the Ural River, the bottom of the river is lined with small pebbles, which is found somewhat larger in the White Hills; a special pebble made of dense clay, in addition, comes across in some places in the lower reaches of the Urals (in “Burnt Onion”). The course of the Urals is quite winding and forms a large number of loops.
The Urals, with a small drop in water, very often changes the main channel throughout its course, breaks new passages for itself, leaving deep reservoirs, or "old ladies" in all directions. Thanks to the variable flow of the Urals, many Cossack villages that used to be by the river subsequently ended up in old people, residents of other villages were forced to move to new places only because their old ashes were gradually grinded and demolished by the river. In general, the Ural valley is cut on both sides by old people, narrow channels, extended channels, lakes, small lakes; during the spring flood occurring from the melting of snow in the Ural mountains, they are all filled with water, which is kept in others until the next year. In spring, rivers and small rivers carry a lot of melt water to the Urals, the river overflows, overflows, in the same places where the banks are on the banks, the river spills 3-7 kilometers. The Urals are little navigable. Sturgeon, stellate sturgeon, common carp, catfish, pike perch, bream, and mackerel are found here (Ural, Siberian name for roach). Also, water is piped from the river to the oil fields.
In the Urals, the Iriklinsk reservoir was formed.

Ural river tributaries.

Most tributaries flow into it from the right, facing the General Syrt side; of which are known: Artazim, Big Kizil, Tanalyk, Huberlya, Sakmara, Yelshanka, Zazhivnaya, lost in the floodplain, not reaching the Urals, in the meadows between the villages of Studenovsky and Kindelinsky, Kindel and Irtek within the Orenburg region; in the West Kazakhstan region below Irtek several shallow rivers flow, including Rubezhka, at the mouth of which were the first villages of the Yaitsky Cossacks, the most watery tributary on the right is the r. Chagan flowing from the Common Syrt.
The rivers flow to the left: Gumbeyka, Suunduk, Bolshoi Kumak, Or, Ilek, Utva, Barbasheva (Barbastau) and Solyanka, noticeable only in the spring and drying out in the summer.

Ural river - the border between Asia and Europe.

The Ural River is a natural water border between Asia and Europe in its upper reaches in Russia [14]. The border runs in Verkhneuralsk and Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk region. In Kazakhstan, geographically, the border between Europe and Asia runs south from Orsk along the Mugodzhary ridge. Thus, the Ural River is an internal European river, only the Russian upper reaches of the river east of the Ural Range belong to Asia.

Preliminary results of the expedition of the Russian Geographical Society in Kazakhstan in 2010 (the desert and Ustyurt plateau) showed that the border of Europe and Asia along the Ural River, as well as along the Emba River, does not have sufficient scientific grounds. The fact is that south of Zlatoust, the Ural Range, having lost its axis, breaks up into several parts, then the mountains gradually disappear completely, that is, the main landmark disappears when the border is drawn. The Ural and Emba rivers do not divide anything, since the terrain they cross is identical.

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