Climate of Kazakhstan .
Classic tour to Kazakhstan - Weather activity in Kazakhstan.
The vast territory of Kazakhstan has a dry continental climate due to its geographical location (i.e. the main source of atmospheric moisture is too far from the oceans) and the nature of the terrain. Like any other region, the climate of the republic is especially affected by a complex of radiation and weather factors.
Solar activity in Kazakhstan.
On the territory of Kazakhstan, a layer of air with high pressure prevails throughout the year, below which there are neighboring regions (north, west and south). In general, anticyclonic weather prevails in most of the country. Therefore, the duration of sunny days here increases from 2000 to 3000 hours per year from north to south. There are 120 sunny days in the north, 260 days in the south, and the number of cloudy days decreases from 60 to 10 (in the Balkhash basin), respectively. As a result, the total amount of radiation gradually increases from 4200 to 5500 MJ / m2. Likewise, the amount of absorbed radiation increases steadily towards the south, depending on the reflectivity of the surface. The reflectivity reaches a maximum of 70-80% in winter with the formation of permanent snow cover, and in summer in most places it decreases to 20-30%. The value of the annual effective radiation radiation ranges from 1500 in the north to 2100 MJ / m2 in the south. The seasonal duration of the negative radiation balance is 3.5-4.5 months in the north (November-March) and 1 month in the south.
In Kazakhstan, annual heat losses for evaporation decrease from 630 to 420 MJ / m2 from left to right. In the dry season in a desert region, a large amount of heat is transferred to turbulent heat exchange. Only when the soil is saturated with spring moisture, as well as on lawns, does the amount of heat required for evaporation exceed the heat loss, which heats the air due to turbulent heat exchange. In Almaty, it is clearly seen that the daytime temperature is lower than in the Moscow region due to evaporation. Changes in the radiation and heat balance change the air temperature. The average January temperature is the lowest in Kazakhstan. and in the eastern regions - to the right 18 ° C of the region up to 3 ° C. The average July temperature in these regions ranges from 19 ° C to 28-30 ° C, respectively. In the north-east of Kazakhstan, the climate is sharply continental, the average temperature difference in January and July in this region reaches 41 ° C. That's right. The average daily temperature in the regions for 10 months will be above 0 ° C. In the north of the republic, winters are long, snowy and cold, with frosts from -45 ° C to -50 ° C. Summers are moderate, short, sometimes the air temperature can rise from 35 ° C up to 45 ° C. The last spring frosts can occur in July, and the early autumn ones - at the end of August.
Traveling in the south Kazakhstan - the climate in the south of Kazakhstan.
South of Kazakhstan. Winter is mild here. This region has the lowest air temperature during the winter months, which is often repeated. The temperature rises to 15 - 20 ° C. However, on some days there are frosts down to -30-35 ° C and even below -40 ° C. In the extreme south of the country, the last spring frosts are expected in late April, the first in the second half of September. Outside the mountainous region of South Kazakhstan, summers are too hot and long. In some years, the air temperature can reach 45-47 ° C, the soil surface can be heated to 70 ° C and higher. Such a large amount of solar energy allows the development of solar energy in Kazakhstan.
Atmospheric circulation in the territory of Kazakhstan.
In winter Kazakhstan is under the influence of the Siberian anticyclone, and in summer - the core of the Azores anticyclone. In this regard, in the north of the republic, the wind blows from the southwest and west, and in summer - from the northwest. During latitudinal rotation, the amount of precipitation in most of the territory of Kazakhstan decreases, and the air temperature rises. During the European cycle, the inflow of cold air masses into the republic increases, the temperature drops sharply, the amount of precipitation increases, and the winds increase. In the Siberian cycle, warm air masses from the south increase, the air temperature rises, and precipitation decreases. The formation of the republic's climate is also influenced by the diversity of its surface. The atmosphere in Kazakhstan depends on the terrain too. There are mountain systems in the southeast (4000-5000 m) and reservoirs such as the Caspian and Aral seas. Mountain systems, which are a natural barrier, increase the latitudinal boundary belt in the atmosphere in a northeast direction, increasing the flow of air masses.
Climatic zones of Kazakhstan.
The territory of Kazakhstan includes 4 climatic zones (forest-steppe, steppe, desert, semi-desert).
The climatic zone of the forest-steppe is the wettest part of the republic. Average annual rainfall. 242 - 315 mm, of which 80% falls on the warm season. The annual total annual temperature is above 10 ° C. 2100 ° C. The duration of the growing season. 160 - 170 days. The shortest season is spring, the longest. 1.5 months, summer lasts 3 months. Winter is long, from October to the end of April. The average annual drought lasts 37 days, in some years from 110 to 113 days.
The steppe climatic zone occupies a large area in the north of the country. Annual precipitation. 200 - 300 mm, of which 70 - 80% are typical for the summer months. Permanent snow cover lasts 140-160 days, average snow thickness. About 30 cm. Many windy days and highly developed erosion processes. The total annual sum of the average daily air temperature is above 10 ° C. 2100 - 2300 ° C. The duration of the growing season. 170 - 180 days.
Desert (desert) climatic zone or arid steppe occupies a flat region in the central part of Kazakhstan. Annual precipitation. to the south, it decreases from 279 mm to 153 mm, of which 43-27% falls on the cold season. Permanent snow cover lasts about 120 days. The thickness of the snow cover increases from west to east from 20 to 60 cm. The average daily air temperature is above 25 ° C for 30-45 days, above 35 ° C for 10-20 days.
The influence of large water bodies in the basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, such as Balkhash, Zaisan, Tengiz and a number of other lakes, on air temperature is mainly observed in the warm season.
In the mountainous regions of the Tien Shan, the annual amount of precipitation varies widely (from 400 to 900 mm) depending on the height and exposure of the slopes. On the western slopes of Altai, up to 1000 mm of precipitation falls per year, and on the eastern slopes it remains dry. Annual precipitation increases to an altitude of 1800-2000 m above sea level, and a slight decrease is observed above this level. In winter, due to a decrease in the height of the clouds, the belt of maximum precipitation is located at an altitude of 1000-1500 m above sea level, and in summer there is a direct dependence of the amount of precipitation on an altitude of up to 300 m above sea level.
Climate of Kazakhstan.