Ecological travles to the Caspian depression (lowland) or the Caspian basin in Kazakhstan.
Travel across the Caspian lowland and how to get there.
The Caspian Basin is a flat plain that arcs around the Caspian Sea from the north.
The Caspian Lowland (depression) is a geographical location.
It is bounded by the Zhalpy Syrt plateau in the north, the foothills of the Ustyurt and Mangistau in the east, and the Ergene plateau in the west. Its length from west to east is over 1000 km, width is about 500 km. Area 200 thousand km2. The plateau is located mainly on the territory of Kazakhstan, its western edge is located on the territory of Russia.
Topography and Geology - Caspian Lowland (depression).
The absolute height rises from -27 m on the shores of the Caspian Sea to 100 m on the outskirts. The Caspian Basin used to be the seabed. During the Quaternary marine transgression, the sea rose 50 m above sea level and reached the Zhiguli Mountains in the north. The relief of the Caspian basin is composed of layers of sand and sedimentary clay up to 1 km thick from the sea. On the flat plain, there are separate salt domes of hills (Beshoki - 60 m, Inder - 56 m, Bolshaya Bogda - 152 m, etc.). In the coastal part of the basin, there are chalk hills from the mouth of the Kuma River in the west to the Zhem River in the east.
Climate - Caspian lowland (depression).
The climate is strictly continental. The average January temperature is -14 ° C in the north and -8 ° C on the coast of the Caspian Sea. The absolute minimum is up to -40 ° C. Although the snow cover is thin, it lasts 4-5 months. Summers are hot and dry. The average July temperature is 22-24 ° C. The absolute maximum exceeds 40 ° C. Annual precipitation decreases from 250 mm in the north to 150 mm in the southeast. The mysterious wind is often repeated.
Water resources - Caspian lowland (depression).
Only the Volga, Ural and Terek rivers reach the Caspian Sea. In summer, Karaozen, Saryozen, Sagyz, Olenty, Buldyrty, Kaldygaity are cut off. There are many salt lakes.
Caspian Lowland (depression) - flora and fauna.
The Caspian basin includes deserts and semi-deserts. Solonetzic light brown and brown soils are widespread, characterized by saline and solonetzic soils. In the north, wormwood and fescue prevail, in the south, wormwood and willow. Small rodents from animals - gophers, mice, etc. are often found. Saigas and korsaks are found in the sands between the Volga and the Urals. The Volga Delta is rich in waterfowl. The Caspian Basin is rich in oil, gas and salt deposits. Thin snow cover is suitable for winter grazing. Horizontal irrigation provides a rich forage crop. The Volga floodplain is planted with orchards, industrial crops and rice. In the Volga delta there is the Astrakhan Nature Reserve, in the east - the State Ustyurt Nature Reserve.
Caspian lowland (depression).