Observation of animals and plants in Kazakhstan.
The formation of the vegetation cover in Kazakhstan begins with the flooding of the main part of the territory at the end of the Cretaceous - the beginning of the Paleogene. In the Paleogene, the entire Turan basin was covered by the sea. The sea divided the continent towards Kazakhstan. To the east of the Turgai Strait, in the Altai and Saryarka regions, broad-leaved and evergreen conifers are prevalent. To the west of the Turgai Strait (Mugajar, Zhalpy Syrt, Zhem Ustyurt), evergreen subtropical species (Poltava flora) developed. Since the sea receded and the size of the land began to increase (Paleogene), the flora of Africa penetrated through Iran to Kazakhstan. These include ephemeral plants, alfalfa, carob bushes and some tree species.
In the first half of the Paleogene, when the plains were inundated by the sea, subtropical deciduous forests spread to the hills and mountains along its shores. In the second half of the Paleogene, sea water receded, dried up and was replaced by today's large and small lakes.
In the Neogene, when the climate became colder and the mountainous regions were covered with ice, heat-loving plants disappeared, modern types of forests were formed, and such plants as walnuts, apricots, and apples were preserved. Arctic and alpine vegetation spread from Siberia. Today's vegetation in Kazakhstan is formed gradually over a long period of time. The formation of modern plants was significantly influenced by both local plants and introduced species.
Vegetation of modern Kazakhstan.
The flora of modern Kazakhstan has about 6,000 plant species. Compared to other neighboring countries (Russia, Central Asia, Caucasus), this is not much. This is influenced by the abundance of deserts and semi-deserts in Kazakhstan, soil and climate. Secondly, a significant part of Kazakhstan is young in terms of geological history. Only in the Neogene did the Caspian lowland and the Turan depression emerge from the sea. Ustyurt and Betpakdala left a little earlier. Therefore, the vegetation in these areas has not yet fully formed.
Mountain vegetation of Kazakhstan.
The mountainous regions of Kazakhstan are rich in vegetation. The rich flora of Central Asia and the Mediterranean is especially preserved in the Western Tien Shan. There are Paleogene nuts, plane trees, almonds, Turkestan maple, pears, etc. The flora of the Syr Darya-Karatau is even richer. There are over 1000 plant species, 150 of which are unique to the area and are not found anywhere else. Coniferous forests are found on the slopes of the Tien Shan, Altai and Semirechensky Alatau. Spruce, pine, and cedar grow here. The alpine belt is covered with grass and meadows. Steppe vegetation grows in the foothills and lowlands. Altai mountain steppes are rich in fruits of wild rose, hawthorn and willow. The foothills of the Semirechensky Alatau and the Tien Shan mountain range look like deserts. Ephemeral plants (aspen, chestnut, poppy, tulip, etc.) are widespread in them. Low-mountain belts are represented by poplar, birch, wild, apple, apricot and hawthorn forests.
Desert vegetation in Kazakhstan.
The vast plains of Kazakhstan, stretching 1600 km from north to south, are dominated by steppe and desert vegetation. In desert areas (Saryesik Atyrau, Moinkum, Betpakdala, etc.) Saxaul, birch, juniper and poplar groves grow along the rivers.
Forests and greenery in Kazakhstan.
In Kazakhstan, 303 plant species are listed in the Red Book and are protected by state reserves. After all, hay is valuable from the point of view of pastures, and forests are an essential material for production.
Kazakhstan is one of the least forested countries in the world. Only 11.4 million hectares (4.2%) of the total area are covered with forests. It plays an important role in cleaning up the environment, protecting the soil from erosion, strengthening its roots, protecting arable land and preventing landslides. Woods and greenery are also beneficial for clearing the air of dust, wind, and drought.
Modern plant species in Kazakhstan.
Modern plant species in Kazakhstan are divided into coniferous forests, small deciduous forests, shrubs, steppe shrubs, saxaul, desert shrubs, steppe plants, subtropical plants, meadows, and annual desert plants.
Animals in Kazakhstan.
Animals In Kazakhstan there are 180 species of mammals, 500 species of birds, 52 species of reptiles, 12 species of amphibians and 104 species of fish. Invertebrates (crustaceans, snails, worms, etc.), etc. There are more than 30,000 species of insects alone.
Elk, roe deer, white rabbits, gray mice, water rats, forest mice, partridges, ptarmigan, waterfowl - swans, geese, ducks, gulls, partridges live in the forest-steppe zone of Northern Kazakhstan. From the coast to the foothills of Gorny Altai, in the steppe belt of grasses and wormwood, there are many marmots, steppe marmots, field mice, etc. From spring to autumn, herds of white antelopes graze here, and in winter they move into the desert.
A significant part of the western part of the steppe belt, occupied by forests in the Ural valley, is occupied by elk and roe deer. There are also black mink, muskrat and pine marten. 200 years ago, the critically endangered beaver began to reappear. Among the amphibians one can meet here turtles, forest frogs, etc. There are many partridges, gray partridges, cranes, sparrows. To the east of the steppe strip, marmots, voles, steppe hawks, white rabbits, lynxes, deer and argali live. In the desert belt, where vegetation is different, several species of terns and partridges, sand mice and rabbits are found. In the 1940s and 1950s, both white antelopes and gazelles were common here. In this belt, birds of prey, lizards, hawks, sparrows and others are found. Ustyurt argali, which is found between Ustyurt and Mangistau. On the plateau, there are long needle-like hedgehogs, gazelles, desert lynxes - caracals.
It is worth noting a representative of a unique breed that is not found anywhere else in Kazakhstan - Zhalman. It is located only in Betpakdal, the salt marsh of the Balkhash village. in some coastal areas, only in the Alakol and Zaisan basins. Here you can meet birds of prey, hawks, cranes, hawks. In the sands of Balkhash live saxaul sparrows and desert owls. A number of species of lizards (snakes, lizards) are widespread in the desert. Deer, wild boars, hares, pheasants, etc. live in the forests of river and lake valleys. A very rare relict gull, listed in the “Red Book” of Kazakhstan, lives in the Alakol region. The fauna of the mountains surrounding the east and south of Kazakhstan is also diverse. Elk, deer, elk, Siberian heron, argali, Altai wolf, brown bear, sable, bear, mink, leopard, squirrel, mouse, Altai marmot, partridge, etc. are found in the coniferous forests of Altai.
Deer, roe deer, argali, Siberian heron, brown bear, lynx, leopard, long-tailed squirrel live in the mountains south of the Zaysan basin [Sauyr, Tarbagatai, Zhetysu (Dzhungarskiy Alatau). Red and very rare Menzbir marmots were brought to Zhetysu (Dzhungarsky Krai), Zailiyskiy Alatau and Talasskiy Alatau instead of blue marmots. Birds of prey, blackbirds and eagles live in the mountains of southeastern Kazakhstan.
Wildlife development in Kazakhstan.
In terms of the development of the animal world, Kazakhstan is part of the Paleoarctic-zoogeographic region. The origin and formation of the fauna is similar to the history of the development of vegetation. In the Paleogene, Kazakhstan was inhabited by tropical and subtropical animals. They were similar to the animal species in India and Africa. During the Ice Age, some warm-blooded animals became extinct and some migrated to warmer climates. Some species survived in the mountainous regions of southeastern Kazakhstan (Zhetysu Alatau, Zailiyskiy Alatau, Uzunkara (Ketpen) ridge) and revived after the ice age. This group includes such species of animals as gazelle, tiger, wild boar, deer, deer, white-tailed deer and red-tailed deer.
During the Ice Age, cold-resistant animals moved to Kazakhstan from the north of the continent. Some species are still preserved in mountainous areas. These include tundra partridges, owls, etc. After the Ice Age, Central Asian animals and birds came to Kazakhstan. These include mice, woodpeckers, birds of prey, and rabbits. Later they moved to the steppes and deserts.
Modern fauna of Kazakhstan.
The fauna of Kazakhstan now numbers 178 species of mammals, 489 species of birds, 104 species of fish and more than 50 thousand species of invertebrates. According to their distribution, their ranges are divided into several zoogeographic zones. These include steppes and forest-steppe (Northern Kazakhstan, along the Irtysh River), deserts and semi-deserts (northern and eastern shores of the Caspian Sea, along the Ural, Turgai, Kyzylkum, Balkhash and Zaisan, Betpakdala, Sarysu, Syrdarya, Ustyurt lakes), mountainous regions. (Altai, Sauyr, Tarbagatai, Zhetysu Alatau, Tien Shan, Karatau, Ulytau, Kalba, Saryarka).
The steppe animals adapted to the peculiarities of nature, and their color changed depending on the color of the steppe. Such properties are characteristic of many species of mice and scorpions. The steppe is inhabited by mice, squirrels, wolves, foxes and badgers. Saigas are common. Among the steppe birds, there are lizards, cranes, and various types of sparrows.
Forest-steppe animals of Kazakhstan.
Forest-steppe mammals include rabbits, white-tailed deer and roe deer. Wolves and foxes are also common here. Birch forests are home to birds of prey such as falcons and hawks. Snakes in the forest are rare, there are some types of lizards.
Desert animals of Kazakhstan.
Desert animals are adapted to heat and deserts. Some of them lie in a deep hole during the day and go hunting at night. Daytime animals are in the steppe only in the early morning and evening. During the day they lie in the shade, under a bush. Desert animals run fast, looking for water from afar, and birds can fly far without landing. Many are tolerant of the desert. They feed on wet plants (marmots, sand mice, some species of sparrows) and are happy with it. There are also animals that live in spring and early summer when the ground is wet and sleep in the heat of summer.
Protection of the fauna of Kazakhstan.
Wildlife protection in Kazakhstan is in full swing. Rare and endangered species of animals are listed in the "Red Book of Kazakhstan", 125 species of vertebrates and 96 species of invertebrates are under special protection. Among them are mammals (gazelle, argali, leopard, snow leopard, Tien Shan brown bear, jungle cat, mink, etc.), Birds (flamingo, pink flamingo, black and white owl, cuckoo swan, steppe eagle, partridge, pheasants , etc.), reptiles, amphibians and several types of fish. The country is also working to restore the number of animals such as the wild donkey, gazelle and saiga, as well as to bring back imported animals.
In order to protect natural resources and animals in Kazakhstan, national parks (Bayanaul, Zailiysky Alatau, Karkaraly, Altynemel, Ordabasy) and reserves (Aksu-Zhabagly, Nauryz, Almaty, Barsakelmes, Ustyurt, Korgalzhyn, Western Altai, Alakol) have been organized.
Flora and fauna of Kazakhstan.