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Kyzylkum desert in Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan.


Travels in the deserts of Kazakhstan.

Deserts of Kazakhstan.

Kyzylkum (desert) and sandy valley between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. The area is 300 thousand km ² (more than 1/3 of them are located on the territory of Kazakhstan (Kyzylorda, South Kazakhstan regions).

Kyzylkum desert - geographical location.

The Kyzyl Kum Desert is located in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan (northern part) and a small southwestern part of the Republic of Turkmenistan. The desert is bounded in the northwest by the Aral Sea, in the southeast by the Zeravshan Valley and by the Nuratau Mountains in Uzbekistan. The average height above sea level is from 53 m (the coast of the Aral Sea of the Kyzylorda region) to 300 m (the Kairaktau mountains of the South Kazakhstan region, 388 m).

Kyzylkum desert - geological structure and topography.

Remnants of mountains (Bukantau, Tamdytau, Kulzhyktau, etc. In Uzbekistan), which appeared in the Paleozoic, are found in the middle part of the Kyzylkum desert. Their highest point is 992 m (Mount Tamdytau, on the territory of Uzbekistan). In general, the terrain is flat. Geologically, it consists of 3 structural layers. They form Paleozoic igneous rocks cut by several explosions. It consists of Jurassic and Cretaceous systems with a thickness of 500-2000 m in the earth's crust and sandy loam, marl deposits of the Cenozoic. Also found in barren places. All oil and gas fields are found in deposits of the Jurassic and Cretaceous (Kyzylorda region). Cretaceous and Paleozoic strata contain artesian waters. Most of the Kyzyl Kum desert is occupied by ridges and ridges. Sometimes there are gravel sands 10-15 m high.

Kyzylkum desert - climate.

The climate is continental. The average January temperature is -7-9 ° C, in some years it drops to -40 ° C. The average July temperature is 26-29 ° C, sometimes up to 46 ° C in air, up to 70-72 ° C on sand. Precipitation does not exceed 100-175 mm, 60-65% of which falls in winter and spring. The snow cover in the desert is unstable. The first snow falls at the end of November. The relative humidity in the desert in the summer months drops to 16-25% (in the south - 11-15%). The average wind speed is 3-5 m / s. There are dust storms in the summer.

Kyzylkum desert - water system.

There are no stable rivers in the Kyzyl Kum desert. Only the canals of the Syrdarya River, which flows to the north, irrigate the river valley. In the south of the Kyzylorda region there are Kyzylorda, Kuandarya, Zhanadarya and Inkardarya, and others. Large water systems are involved. In the spring, sand dunes, small lakes and rivers appear between the ridges. The area is used as a year-round pasture. The Kazakh part of the Kyzylkum is occupied by the administrative districts of the Kyzylorda region. Soil, flora and fauna Most of the desert (92%) is covered with sand. Therefore, any soil contains sand. In general, the soils are pale brown, sandy pink and gray, saline. There are large deposits of marble, graphite, coal, and gold in the southwest. The vegetation is covered with ephemeral wormwood, saxaul, wormwood, sandalwood, wormwood, poplar, etc. grow. A grove grows around the Syrdarya delta. Kyzylkum region is suitable for raising Karakol sheep, beef and dairy cattle. The sands of the desert are inhabited by gazelles, white antelopes, mice, squirrels, turtles, etc. inhabits.

Kyzylkum desert.

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