Akmola region in Kazakhstan.
How to travel in Akmola region.
Akmola region is a region in Northern Kazakhstan. The enclave, surrounded by the territory of the region, is the capital of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan, which is not administratively included in the region. The administrative center since 1999 is the city of Kokshetau.
It borders in the west with Kostanay, in the north with North Kazakhstan, in the east with Pavlodar and in the south with Karaganda regions.
The region is located in close proximity to such developed regions of Russia as the Urals, Tyumen, Tomsk, Omsk and Novosibirsk regions, with which there are established long-term economic ties, new ones are being developed. Economic ties with neighboring regions of Kazakhstan are further developed. There is a tendency to expand the market for products manufactured in the region.
Relief of Akmola region.
The Akmola region occupies the western edge of the Kazakh folded country between the Ulytau mountains in the southwest and Kokshetau heights in the north. The general deviation of the area is from east to west. In the same direction, the middle part of the Akmola region is crossed by the Ishim River valley, which turns steeply north not far from the western border of the region. By the nature of the relief, the Akmola region can be divided into 3 parts: northwestern — plain, southwestern — plain with separate hills, and eastern — elevated part of the Kazakh folded country. The northwestern part (adjacent to the Ishim valley, in the area of its turn to the north) represents a flat plateau, dissected by dry ravines and gullies. To the Ishim valley, the plateau ends with a ledge. In the southwestern part of the Akmola region (south of the Ishim River), an elevated plain extends. Numerous hills with flat peaks are scattered on it, and in the depressions between the hills there are shallow salt and fresh lakes of various sizes. In the east of the Akmola region - that part of the Kazakh folded, once mountainous, country, leveled by the processes of destruction (denudation), in which a complex complex of hills, ridges and ridges with soft outlines of slopes, called hills (the so-called small hills), are preserved. The relative height of the hills is from 5-10 m to 50-60 m and more rarely up to 80-100 m. The shape and size of the hills vary depending on the composition of the constituent rocks. The highest hills with rounded peaks are usually composed of granites, hills with even more gentle slopes and soft-contoured peaks - porphyry, and, conversely, peaked hills, usually quartzites. Closed basins between hills, ranging in size from several tens of meters to several tens of kilometers in diameter, are often occupied by lakes. The extreme north-eastern part of the Akmola region lies within the West Siberian lowland.
Climate Akmola region.
In the Akmola region, the climate is sharply continental, arid, with hot summers and cold winters. Daily and annual temperature amplitudes are very large. Spring and autumn are weak. There are many sunny days, the amount of solar heat received by the earth in summer is almost as great as in the tropics. Cloud cover is negligible. Annual precipitation decreases from north to south, their maximum falls in June, the minimum - in February. Snow cover is maintained on average 150 days. Winds in the Akmola region are quite strong.
Hydrography Akmola region.
The waters of the Akmola region are poor. The rivers are shallow, non-navigable, fed by meltwater and, to a lesser extent, from groundwater sources. In summer, the rivers often dry up, the water in them becomes salty. The main rivers of the Akmola region: Ishim (a tributary of the Irtysh) and its tributaries: Ters-Akkan - on the left, Zhabay, Koluton and others - on the right. Many rivers end in closed lakes (Nura, Selenty, Ulenti rivers). Dozens of lakes occupy the basins of the small hills and the elevated plains of the Akmola region. The largest of them are the salt lakes Tengiz (not far from the border with the Karaganda region), about 40 km wide, Kalmyk-Kol and others, the smaller ones - freshwater Ala-Kol, Shoindy-Kol and many others. Thanks to the low shores, many lakes change their outlines with strong winds.
The soil and vegetation cover of the Akmola region is represented by steppes and partly semi-deserts. Depending on the topography and underlying rocks, the soil complexes and plant associations are extremely variegated and diverse. To the north of Ishim, grass-grassy steppes are located on southern chernozems with a large number of saline soils along the depressions and skeletal soils along hills. The vegetation is drought-resistant, represented by feather grasses, fescue, and pine forests are often found on hills. The entire western third of the Akmola region (penetrating along the Ishim river valley east to the city of Nur-Sultan) is occupied by cereal steppes on dark chestnut soils. Soil sodding here is only 30-40%. To the east of the city of Nur-Sultan, salt marshes begin to play a significant role in the soil cover, and wormwood and fescue in the vegetation. In the southern part of the Akmola region in the area of Lake Tengiz, solonetzes and solonchaks spread an unclosed cover of wormwood and fescue.
History Akmola region.
On October 14, 1939, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Akmola region was formed from parts of the Karaganda and North Kazakhstan regions. It included: from the Karaganda region - the city of Akmolinsk and 4 districts (Akmolinsky, Vishnevsky, Novocherkassky and Erkenshiliksky); from the North Kazakhstan region - the city of Stepnyak and 11 districts (Aryk-Balyksky, Atbasarsky, Zerendinsky, Esilsky, Kalininsky, Makinsky, Molotovsky, Ruzayevsky, Stalin, Schuchinsky and Enbekshilders). On October 16, 1939, the 16th district, Shortandinsky, was formed.
March 15, 1944 Aryk-Balyksky, Zerendinsky, Ruzaevsky, Schuchinsky and Enbeksheldersky districts were transferred to the new Kokchetav region.
On September 14, 1954, the city of Stepnyak was transferred from the Akmola region to Kokchetav.
On October 22, 1955, the Barankul and Kiiminsky districts were formed.
On July 30, 1957, the Molotovsky district was renamed Balkashinsky.
On December 26, 1960, the Akmola region was abolished, the territory of the region became part of the Tselin region.
March 20, 1961 the city of Akmolinsk was renamed Tselinograd.
April 24, 1961 was formed Tselinograd region with a center in Tselinograd. The region included the following regions: Atbasarsky, Balkashinsky, Barankulsky, Vishnevsky, Esilsky, Kalininsky, Kiiminsky, Kurgaldzhinsky, Makinsky, Novocherkassky, Stalin, Tselinogradsky, Shortandinsky and Erkenshiliksky. On November 18, the Stalin district was renamed Leninsky.
On January 2, 1963, a new administrative division was introduced. The Tselinograd region began to be divided into 10 rural areas (Alekseevsky (former Leninsky), Astrakhan (former Novocherkassky), Atbasarsky, Balkashinsky, Derzhavinsky, Ermentausky (formerly Erkenshiliksky), Esilsky, Zhaksynsky, Kurgaldzhinsky, Tselinogradsky) and 1 industrial region (Zhol.
On December 31, 1964, the Vishnevsky and Makinsky districts were restored, and the Zholymbet industrial district was abolished.
On October 19, 1965, the Tselinny Territory was abolished, the region again directly became part of the Kazakh SSR.
On January 31, 1966, the Shortandy district was restored, and on May 28, the Zhanadalinsky district was formed.
November 23, 1970 Derzhavinsky, Esilsky, Zhaksynsky and Zhanadalinsky areas were transferred to the new Turgai region. On December 4, the Krasnoznamensky district was formed.
On December 25, 1973, the Marinovsky and Seletinsky districts were formed.
On February 15, 1977, the Tengiz region was formed.
By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Kazakh SSR of July 18, 1985, the Tengiz region was transferred to the Karaganda region (now part of the Nurinsky district of the Karaganda region).
On July 9, 1988, the Marinovsky District was abolished and its territory was transferred to the Makinsky District.
In 1992, Tselinograd was renamed Akmola, from 1998 to 2019 - Astana (from 2019 Nur-Sultan), and the region - to Akmola.
On February 28, 1997, the Seletinsky district was abolished (Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 3370 dated 02.28.1997, the territory of the abolished Seletinsky district was transferred to the Yereymentau district). On April 22, Derzhavinsky, Zhaksynsky, Zhanadalinsky, Esilsky and Kiiminsky districts were transferred from the abolished Turgai region to Akmola. On July 23, Zhanadalinsky (the territory was transferred to Zharkainsky district) and Kiyminsky districts were abolished. On November 14, the Alekseevsky district was renamed to Akkolsky, Balkashinsky to Sandyktau, Vishnevsky to Arshalynsky, Krasnoznamensky to Yegindykolsky, Makinsky to Bulandynsky, Derzhavinsky to Zharkainsky. The transcription in the spelling of Yermentausky to Yereimentausky district, Kurgaldzhinsky - to Korgalzhinsky district.
On April 10, 1999, the three southern regions of the North Kazakhstan region (Zerendinsky, Schuchinsky, Enbekshildersky, which were part of the abolished Kokchetav region until 1997) with the cities of Kokshetau, Schuchinsk and Stepnyak (also part of the abolished Kokchetav region until 1997) were transferred to Akmola area. At the same time, the administrative center of the Akmola region was moved from the capital of Astana to the city of Kokshetau.